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Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus

APA style guide

The American Psychological Association (APA) Style is an author-date citation style. This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.

Always check with your lecturer that this is the citation style required for your unit.

APA Style Central

The official and authoritative online guide to APA style, produced by the American Psychological Association

Download the APA quick guide [157KB]

Download a printable PDF with examples.

Watch the video: APA referencing style

 

Examples

Book

Single book

Referencing a book

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Fetherston (2007, p. 61) claims that teachers “suggest ways of looking at the new material” (p. 61).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be included if summarising an idea from a particular page.

Teachers help each student with their individual interpretation of understanding (Fetherston, 2007).

Reference list entry

You may need to double-space your reference list as APA style requires double spacing with a hanging indent.

In APA 6th Ed, locations in the US are formed as City, state abbreviation e.g. New York, NY. Locations outside the US are City, Country e.g. London, England. See section 6.30 of the APA Style Guide for further information.

Fetherston, T. (2007). Becoming an effective teacher. South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson
       Learning.

 

A particular edition of a book

No modification to the in-text citations for either direct quotes or paraphrasing is necessary to specify a particular edition.

Reference list entry

Add the edition to the reference list entry.

Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does (2nd ed.).
       Buckingham, England: Society for Research in Higher Education & Open University
       Press.

 

Book whose author is an organisation

Direct Quote

“For 2011, both a 1% and 5% sample have been produced” (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011).

Paraphrasing

For 2011, both a 1% and 5% sample have been produced. The release…(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011).

Reference list entry

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2011). 2011 Census dictionary (No. 2901.0). Canberra, ACT:
       Australian Bureau of Statistics.

 

Referencing a book with multiple authors

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Bohm and Chaudri (2000, p. 52) claim that Australia has a “reputation for delivering industry-focused education and training” (p. 52).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Australia’s higher education sector is known for providing students with training that is relevant to their future profession (Bohm & Chaudri, 2000).

Reference list entry

Bohm, A., & Chaudri, D. (2000). Securing Australia’s future: An analysis of the international
       education markets in India.
Sydney, Australia: IDP Education Australia.

 

Referencing a book with three to five authors

Cite all authors the first time. In subsequent citations use the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

First citation:
Bell, Bush, Nicholson, O’Brien, and Tran (2002, p. 27) found that universities “are embracing the concept”.

Subsequent citation/s:
Bell et al. (2002, p. 27) stated that “Australian universities have led the way”.

Alternatively:
“Australian universities have led the way” (Bell et al., 2002, p. 27).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Subsequent citation/s:
Bell et al. (2002)…or…(Bell et al., 2002)

First citation:
Australian universities are actively using online technology (Bell, Bush, Nicholson, O’Brien, & Tran, 2002).

Reference list entry

Bell, M., Bush, D., Nicholson, P., O’Brien, D., & Tran, T. (2002). Universities online: A survey of
       online education and services in Australia
. Canberra, Australia: Department of
      Education, Science and Training.

 

Referencing a book with more than five authors

Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the all citations.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Louden et al. (2000, p. 27) concludes that the number of primary students “having difficulty with numeracy is somewhat lower than that of literacy”.

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

The report concluded that difficulties with numeracy were less than difficulties with literacy for primary school students (Louden et al., 2000).

Reference list entry

Give surnames and initials for up to and including seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six author’ names, then insert 3 ellipsis points, and add the last author’s name.

Louden, W., Chan, L. K., Elkins, J., Greaves, D., House, H., Milton, M.,…Van Kraayenoord, C.
      (2000). Mapping the territory: Primary students with learning difficulties: Literacy and
      numeracy: Vol. 2. Analysis.
Canberra, Australia: Department Education, Training and
      Youth Affairs.

 

Referencing a book with no known author


Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Higher education in Australia (2004, p. 23) claims that Australia is “a major provider of international education and training services”.

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Australia has a growing role in the education of international students (Higher education in Australia, 2004).

Reference list entry

Higher education in Australia: The facts. (2004). Fitzroy, Australia: Business/Higher Education
       Round Table.

Multiple books with same author

Referencing multiple books by the same author

Order the citations of two or more works within the same brackets in the same order in which they appear in the reference list. Place in-press citations last. Give the author’s surname/s once. Give only the date for each subsequent work.

Direct quotes are not possible when referencing multiple works by the same author.

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

The lecturer’s understanding of teaching has an effect on the quality of student learning (Ramsden, 1992, 1994).

Reference list entry

Works by the same author are arranged by year of publication with the earliest year first.

Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to teach in higher education. London, England: Routledge.

Ramsden, P. (1994). Using research on student learning to enhance educational
       quality
.Nathan, Australia: Griffith Institute for Higher Education.

 

Multiple works by the same author with the same publication year

Identify works by the same author in the same year by the suffixes a, b, c, etc. after the year.

Tiernan and Weller (2010, p. 299) state that “… “

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Feedback to students on their assessments contributes to the quality of their learning (Ramsden, 1998a, 1998b).

Reference list entry

References by the same author with the same publication year are arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding A or The) that follows the date.

Ramsden, P. (1998a). Learning to lead in higher education. London, England: Routledge.

Ramsden, P. (1998b). What makes a university effective? Nathan, Australia: Griffith University.

Chapter from an edited book

Referencing a chapter in an edited book

Direct quote

To quote directly from a source, use double quotation marks to enclose quotations in text. Direct quotations must be accurate. If the quotation is less than 40 words, incorporate it into the text with the quotation in double quotation marks.

Thompson, 2008, p. 52

Paraphrasing

Thompson discusses the interest among educators and students alike that have a growing interest in virtual education. He says that there is a growing…..school. (Thompson, 2008 p. 165)

Reference list entry

Thomson, S. (2008). Teaching in a virtual setting. In L. Bell & R.B. Trueman (Eds.), Virtual worlds,
       real libraries: Librarians and educators in Second Life and other multi-user virtual
       environments
(pp. 165-172). Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Secondary source in a book

Referencing a secondary source from a book

Use secondary sources only when you cannot obtain the primary source of information.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Gardener (as cited in Biggs & Tang, 2007) states that if as a teacher you cover a wide range of topics “you are guaranteeing that most kids will not understand, because they haven’t had time enough to go into things in depth” (p. 82). (page numbers may be required).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

There is a delicate balance in teaching between depth of learning and breadth of learning, which means the greater the coverage of a topic the lesser the depth of understanding that may be achieved by students (Gardiner as cited in Biggs & Tang, 2007).

Reference list entry

Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2007). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does
      (3rd ed.). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.

Encyclopedia or dictionary

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

There seems to be a central belief that archaeology “can reveal the evidence of the whole human story from prehistoric to historical times” (Murray, 1991, p. xv).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

There is a general belief that mankind can derive much from examining and understanding human history through archaeology (Murray, 1991).

Reference list entry

Murray, T (ed.) 1991, Encyclopedia of archaeology: the great archaeologists, vols. 1-2, ABC-CLIO,
       Santa Barbara, CA.

Pamphlet

Referencing a pamphlet with no known author

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included. Instead of an author, include the title of the pamphlet in italics. For long titles, include only the first part.

Successful scanning of a barcode involves the symbol having “sufficient contrast, dark bars on light background” (Bar code information, 1996, p. 22).

Paraphrasing

The contrast between the barcode and its background is important as scanners utilise a red light in the scanning process (Bar code information, 1996).

Reference list entry

Bar code information for Commonwealth material. (1996). [Brochure] Canberra, Australia:
       Australian Government Publishing Service.

Ebook

Referencing an ebook from an ebook database

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included unless there are no page numbers, in which case use the chapter and section details (chapter is abbreviated as ‘ch.’).

Tanaka (2012, p. 19) notes this shift in law as being due to offshore exploration and drilling: “After World War II, however, coastal states increasingly extended their jurisdiction toward the high seas in order to control offshore resources”.

Paraphrasing

Page numbers must be included if available.

Tanaka (2012) asserts that coastal nations, wanting to obtain and secure offshore deposits of natural resources for their own use, expanded their jurisdictional reach into the high seas.

Reference list entry

If no digital object identifier (DOI) is assigned to the content, include the home page URL.

Tanaka, Y. (2012). The International Law of the Sea, Cambridge University Press. EBL Ebook
       Library. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com

Article

Article from a print journal

Referencing an article from a print journal


Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Assignments that are done individually give the student “the opportunity to complete the assignment according to his or her preferred approach” (Leonard & LeBrasseur, 2008, p. 39).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

A lecturer sets an individual assignment in order to evaluate what the student has learned
       and provide feedback, and the student has the flexibility to be able to choose
       the resources they will use and the approach they will take towards the topic (Leonard
      & LeBrasseur, 2008).

Reference list entry

The reference list may need to have double line spacing.

Leonard, V., & LeBrasseur, R. (2008). Individual assignments and academic dishonesty:
       Exploring the conundrum. The Australian Educational Researcher, 35(1), 37-56.

 

Article with no known author


Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article. Italicise the title of a periodical.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

The Indigenous Open Learning Project provides content “customised for Indigenous Australian students covering a broad range of uses…” (“Open learning initiatives”, 2001, p. 26).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

The Indigenous Open Learning Project provides online learning specifically for indigenous students (“Open learning initiatives,” 2001).

Reference list entry

The reference list may need to have double line spacing.

Open learning initiatives to assist indigenous Australians in the higher education sector.
       (2001). Learning for all: Opportunities for indigenous Australians,1, 26.

Secondary source in an article

Referencing a secondary source in an article from a print journal

Use secondary sources only when you cannot obtain the primary source of information.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Marton (as cited in Fyrenius, Wirrel, & Silen, 2007) points to “understanding through commonalities and understanding through differences” (p. 151) as two variations in achieving understanding.

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Research on Chinese learners has identified two different ways the students form in their mind the notion of understanding – comprehending similarities and and differences (Marton as cited in Fyrenius, Wirrel, & Silen, 2007).

Reference list entry

Fyrenius, A., Wirrell, S., & Silen, C. (2007). Student approaches to achieving understanding-
      approaches to learning revisited. Studies in Higher Education, 32(2), 149-165.

Article from an online database

Referencing an article from an online database

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

A student engaged at a higher level of learning is aware that “learning involves meaning and making connections…” (Buckridge & Guest, 2007, p. 136).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

When a student internalizes information in order to make connections with their prior learning this points to a qualitatively higher level of engagement (Buckridge & Guest, 2007).

Reference list entry

Include the digital object identifier (DOI) in the reference if one is assigned.

The order of the authors’ names is decided by the authors and should be preserved.

The volume number must be italicised, however the issue number and brackets should not eg. 52(16).

Buckridge, M., & Guest, R. (2007). A conversation about pedagogical responses to increased
       diversity in university classrooms. Higher Education Research & Development, 26(2), 133
      -146. doi:10.1080/07294360701310771

If no digital object identifier (DOI) is assigned to the content, include the home page URL.

Herington, C., & Weaven, S. (2008). Action research and reflection on student approaches to
       learning in large first year university classes. Australian Educational Researcher, 35(3), 111-
      134. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/aer/about.htm

Article from a web page

Referencing an article from a web page

Direct quote

Cite all authors for the first citation.

Although many new university students are seen as technologically savvy “it is recognised that core technology based skills do not necessarily translate into sophisticated skills with other technologies or general information literacy” (Kennedy, Judd, Churchward, Gray, & Krause, 2008, p. 117).

Paraphrasing

Cite all authors for the first citation. The following is an example of a second or subsequent citation from the same work.

New university students are often viewed as being technologically savvy, however it has been found that many of the skills used with well known tools, eg. email and mobile phones, are not being adapted to more complex emerging technologies and/or more critical use of information (Kennedy et al., 2008).

Reference list entry

Kennedy, G., Judd, T., Churchward, A., Gray, K., & Krause, K. (2008). First year students’
       experiences with technology: Are they really digital natives? Australasian Journal of
      Educational Technology, 24(1), 108-122. Retrieved from
      http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet24/kennedy.html

Newspaper article

Referencing a newspaper article

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

The Bradley Review of higher education was generally accepted by Australian universities, however it was pointed out that there was a worrying “revival of the issue of teaching-only universities” (Healy, 2008, p.21).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Reaction to the Government review of higher education by Denise Bradley was mainly positive, however there was some concern over the contentious issue of research versus teaching universities (Healy, 2008).

Reference list entry

Healy, G. (2008, June 18). Bradley received a cautious thumbs up. The Australian, p. 21.

 

No known author

When the author is not known, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of a newspaper article.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

The prevailing argument with regard to teacher’s remuneration is that “Other professions are rewarded according to performance; the same should apply to teaching” (“Apples for,” 2007, p. 14).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Much of the current debate on remuneration for teachers centres on the premise that higher performing teachers should be paid at the higher rate (“Apples for,” 2007).

Reference list entry

Apples for best teachers. (2007, October 26). The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 14.

Conference paper

Referencing a paper from a published conference proceedings

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Monetary value is not the true value of a purchased item – Vargo and Lusch (cited in Graham, 2011, p. 145) “introduced the idea that value can only be created and acknowledged by the consumer in the act of consumption”.

Supply DOI where available, or URL (shorten URL) in the absence of DOI.

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Another perspective is that of Vargo and Lusch (cited in Graham, 2011), who propose that it is the purchaser that gives a purchased item its value.

Reference list entry

Graham, G. (2011). Interaction space. Workshop proceedings of the 7th international conference
       on intelligent environments.
(pp.145-154). IOS Press, EBSCOhost eBook Collection.
      Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/.

Image of Figure

Image from a book

Referencing an image from a book with known photographer

Direct quote

Direct quote

(Nauman 1966, p.380)

Paraphrasing

In the photograph “Self-portrait as a fountain” (Nauman 1966) the photographer…

Reference entry list

Nauman, B. (1966). Self-portrait as a fountain [photographer]. In Warner, M.W. (2010).
       Photography a cultural history. (3rd ed.) London. Lawrence King.

Figure from a book

Referencing a figure from a book

Direct quote

(Figure 17.43. Sizes of pub glassware p.17.26).

Paraphrasing

(Figure 17.43. Sizes of pub glassware)

Reference entry list

Figure 17.43. Sizes of pub glassware. In Littlefield D (Ed.). (2012) Metric handbook planning
       and design data. (4th ed.). London. Routledge.

Image from the web

Referencing an image on the web (with no known author)

Direct quote

In the middle of the model we can see overlap is "learning as becoming a new person" (Learning in a community of practice, n.d.).

Paraphrasing

The model shows that when a student succeeds at learning within a disciplinary community ultimately they change their conception of the world and therefore change themselves (Learning in a community of practice, n.d.).

The date of retrieval may be required after the title, eg. Retrieved May 16, 2009, from...

Learning in a community of practice [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from
       http://daugherity.com/blogfiles/CoPVenn.jpg

Artwork from a gallery

Referencing an artwork in a museum or gallery

Direct quote

Blue poles

(Pollock, 1952)

Paraphrasing

(Pollock, 1952)

Reference entry list

Pollock, J. (1952). Blue Poles. [painting]. Canberra. National Gallery of Australia

Image from a library database

Referencing an image from a library database

Direct quote

Us n.d. if date cannot be found.

Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain, Frank Gehry

(Beir, P n.d.)

Paraphrasing

(Beir, P n.d.)

Reference list entry

Beir, P. (n.d.). Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain, Frank Gehry. [Photograph]. Retrieved from
       http://quest.ed.com

Web page or download

Web page or document

Referencing a web page

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Previous research has indicated that "the early experiences of students entering tertiary education are integral to the development of positive attitudes towards further study" (Hillman, 2005, p. 9).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Many students in their first year of tertiary study have issues with keeping a balance between work, study and relationships (Hillman, 2005).

Reference list entry

Date of retrieval may be required after title, eg. Retrieved May 16, 2009, from...

Hillman, K. (2005). The first year experience: The transition from secondary school to university
       and TAFE in Australia.
Retrieved from
      http://www.acer.edu.au/documents/LSAY_lsay40.pdf

 

No author or author unknown

Direct quote

Page number must be included. If not available, indicate the paragraph number.

Knowles' theory of andragogy argues that "adults are self-directed learners, and expect to take responsibility for decisions" (Andragogy, 2008, para. 1).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Knowles' theory of andragogy proposes that adults want to take on more authority for their own learning (Andragogy, 2008).

Reference list entry

Date of retrieval may be required after the title, eg. Retrieved May 16, 2009, from...

Andragogy: Adult learning. (2008). Retrieved from
       http://www.west.net/~ger/Orientation/andragogy.html

 

No date of publication


Direct quote

The theory of constructivism argues that "...learning is an active, constructive process" (Bruinsma & Berghuis, n.d., para. 3).

Paraphrasing

Constructivism as a theory argues that the learner builds their own interpretation of new knowledge by linking it to their prior knowledge (Bruinsma & Berghuis, n.d., para. 3).

Reference list entry

Date of retrieval may be required after the title, eg. Retrieved May 16, 2009, from...

Bruinsma, B., & Berghuis, W. (n.d.). Perspectives on learning: Consequences on instructional
       design: Perspectives.
Retrieved from http://www.geocities.com/learningenvironments/

Ebook

Referencing an ebook from an ebook database

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included unless there are no page numbers, in which case use the chapter and section details (chapter is abbreviated as ‘ch.’).

Tanaka (2012, p. 19) notes this shift in law as being due to offshore exploration and drilling: “After World War II, however, coastal states increasingly extended their jurisdiction toward the high seas in order to control offshore resources”.

Paraphrasing

Page numbers must be included if available.

Tanaka (2012) asserts that coastal nations, wanting to obtain and secure offshore deposits of natural resources for their own use, expanded their jurisdictional reach into the high seas.

Reference list entry

If no digital object identifier (DOI) is assigned to the content, include the home page URL.

Tanaka, Y. (2012). The International Law of the Sea, Cambridge University Press. EBL Ebook
       Library. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/

Thesis

Referencing a thesis viewed online

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

A student engaged in deep learning "focuses on what is intended or signified by the author of the text" (Bond, 2000, p. 78).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

An example of a deep approach to learning is when a student strives to understand what the author's intention is within the text (Bond, 2000).

Reference list entry

If no digital object identifier (DOI) is assigned to the content, include details of online access. See APA 6th manual for specific guidelines, Section 7.05 pp.207-208.

Bond, C. (2000). The development of students' experiences of learning in higher education (PhD
       Thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia). Retrieved from
       http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/public/adt-QGU20051214.111201/index.html

Image from the web

Referencing an image on the web (with no known author)

Direct quote

In the middle of the model we can see overlap is "learning as becoming a new person" (Learning in a community of practice, n.d.).

Paraphrasing

The model shows that when a student succeeds at learning within a disciplinary community ultimately they change their conception of the world and therefore change themselves (Learning in a community of practice, n.d.).

Reference list entry

The date of retrieval may be required after the title, eg. Retrieved May 16, 2009, from...

Learning in a community of practice [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from
       http://daugherity.com/blogfiles/CoPVenn.jpg

Table or graph from the web

Referencing tables, graphs and images from a webpage

Direct quote

Walter Burley and Marion Mahoney Griffin’s ceiling in the Capitol Theatre, Melbourne 1975

Paraphrasing

(Seivers 1975)

Reference entry list

Seivers, W. (1975). Walter Burley and Marion Mahoney Griffin’s ceiling in the Capitol Theatre,
       Melbourne 1975. [photograph]. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic=an12752342-2.

Blog comment

Referencing a comment on a blog

Direct quote

Stephens (2008, September 14) emphasises that in order to maintain an interesting blog "I try to read many blogs in my blogosphere; those that I aspire to be like, and those that are more my direct competitors".

Paraphrasing

Creating a valuable blog involves researching what other bloggers are doing (Stephens, 2008).

Reference list entry

Stephens, R. (2008, September 14). Re: 50 ways to take your blog to the next level [Blog post].
       Retrieved from http://www.chrisbrogan.com/50-ways-to-take-your-blog-to-the-next-level/

Wiki

Referencing a page from a wiki

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included. If not present, give paragraph numbers.

Mader (2008, para. 4) points to the essential difference between a blog and a wiki: "A blog is very much an online journal, and a wiki is similar to a whiteboard, except that it records everything that's written on it, and lets you see the history of revisions".

Paraphrasing

A blog is like a personal online diary with sequential entries going back in time, whereas a wiki is produced and edited by more than one person and you are able to view any changes made (Mader, 2008).

Paraphrase

Chris Taylor's interview on INSEADofficial (2010) was ...

Reference list entry

Mader, S. (2008, April 10). Interview: The state of wikis in education. Retrieved September 29,
       2008 from Grow Your Wiki: http://www.ikiw.org/2008/04/10/interview-the-state-of-wikis-
      in-education/

Podcast

Referencing a podcast

Direct quote

When people think about their health and life expectancy they often believe this is primarily effected by medical factors, however "it's the social and economic circumstances that we live in which seem to be the most powerful determinants of how healthy we are" (Seega, 2008).

Paraphrasing

Many people do not realise that the main factors that determine their health and life expectancy are the economic and social situations they live in (Seega, 2008).

Reference list entry

Seega, B. (Producer), & Swan, N. (Presenter). (2008, September 15). Closing the gap in a
       generation
[radio program]. Sydney: ABC Radio National. Retrieved from
       http://www.abc.net.au/rn/healthreport/

Government Publication

Australian Bureau of Statistics report

Referencing a report from the Australian Bureau of Statistics

In ABS publications if no page nor paragraph numbers are visible, cite the heading name followed by the word section, and the number of the paragraph following it:

First citation

"In the 2010 calendar year, 47% of HERD ($3,836 million) was directed towards Applied research, 25% ($2,052 million) to Pure basic research and 20% ($1,653 million) to Strategic basic research" (ABS, 2010, Type of activity section, para. 1).

Subsequent citations

"As with HERD, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland accounted for three quarters (75%) of total human resources devoted to R&D in 2010" (ABS, 2010, Type of resource section, para. 2).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Of the total research and development in higher education in 2010 the largest proportion was spent on applied research (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010).

Reference list entry

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Research and experimental development, higher education
       organisations, Australia,
2010, (Catalogue No. 8111.0). Retrieved from
       http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/8111.0

Government report

Referencing a government report

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Jurisdiction may not be required. Check with your tutor.

What is different about higher education is "the effective coupling and integration of the generic outcomes of a general education with preparation for specialised and professional participation in the workforce" (Australia Department of Education, Science and Training, 2002, p. 3).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Higher education has a dual role in that it endeavours to not only cover generic skills but also give learners a thorough introduction to their specialist discipline and how it functions within the workplace (Australia Department of Education, Science and Training, 2002).

Reference list entry

When the author and the publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

Australia Department of Education, Science and Training. (2002). Striving for quality: Learning,
       teaching and scholarship
(DEST no. 6891.HERC02A). Canberra, Australia: Author.

Standards Australia standard

Referencing a standard from Standards Australia

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Teachers in the tutoring industry refers to "...those who possess teaching qualifications from recognised institutions" (Standards Australia, 2006, p. 5).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

In the tutoring industry it is recognised that the term tutor denotes someone that provides tuition, whereas a person who is called a teacher is someone who has formal teaching qualifications (Standards Australia, 2006).

Reference list entry

Standards Australia. (2006). Tutoring code of practice (HB201-206). Retrieved from
       http://www.saiglobal.com

Film, TV or radio show

Film or video recording

Referencing a film or video recording

Direct quote

The focus of the thinking curriculum is: "preparing children to become active and thoughtful citizens" (McAuliffe, 2005).

Paraphrasing

Developing a thinking curriculum means not just focusing on teaching content, it's emphasis is on teaching children to use higher order thinking skills in their approach to learning (McAuliffe, 2005).

Reference list entry

McAuliffe, M. (Executive Producer). (2005). The thinking curriculum [DVD]. Bendigo, Australia:
       Video Education Australasia.

TV or radio program

Referencing a television or radio program

Direct quote

Dr Peter McIntosh from CSIRO explains the current drought is having a greater impact because "climate change is warming Australia, and the warmer it gets, the more evaporation you get so the same amount of rainfall is less effective for farmers" (ABC-TV, 2008).

Paraphrasing

Australian experts agree that the current drought is having a greater negative impact on farms because climate change is creating higher rates of evaporation of rainfall (ABC-TV, 2008).

Reference list entry

ABC-TV (Australia). (2008, March 17). Winds of change [Television broadcast]. In Four Corners.
       Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Podcast or online video

Referencing a podcast

Direct quote

When people think about their health and life expectancy they often believe this is primarily effected by medical factors, however "it's the social and economic circumstances that we live in which seem to be the most powerful determinants of how healthy we are" (Seega, 2008).

Paraphrasing

Many people do not realise that the main factors that determine their health and life expectancy are the economic and social situations they live in (Seega, 2008).

Reference list entry

Seega, B. (Producer), & Swan, N. (Presenter). (2008, September 15). Closing the gap in a
       generation
[radio program]. Sydney: ABC Radio National. Retrieved from
       http://www.abc.net.au/rn/healthreport/

DVD

Referencing a DVD

Direct quote

In other words, “Refusing to address the issues is one way to kill communication” (Don’t hesitate, communicate! Effective communication in the office, 2010).

Paraphrasing

Effective communication in a workplace can end if a problem is not dealt with (Don’t hesitate, communicate! Effective communication in the office, 2010).

Reference list entry

Don’t hesitate, communicate! Effective communication in the office. (2010) [DVD].
       Bendigo, Australia: Video Education Australasia.

 

Feature film on DVD

Direct quote

The passing down from generation to generation of a chef’s skills is humorously summed up by this statement from Po’s adopted father: “We are noodle folk-broth runs through our veins!” (Kung Fu Panda, 2008).

Paraphrasing

In this instance, a blank scroll is used as a metaphor for non-existent knowledge (Kung Fu Panda, 2008).

Reference list entry

Stevenson, J. & Osborne, M. (Directors). (2008). Kung Fu Panda (Motion Picture) Hollywood,
       Calif: Paramount Pictures.

Other

Lecture Notes

Referencing lecture notes from your course

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included if present. If not available, give paragraph numbers.

“Systems can be natural or artificial, eg. The solar system; Australia; Swinburne University of Technology; a bicycle” (Tipping, 2010, para. 2).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers or paragraph numbers may be required.

There are usually two types of systems: natural systems and artificial systems (Tipping, 2010).

Reference list entry

Tipping, R. (2010). Lecture 1. HIT3423/8423 Enterprise system management. Retrieved from
       http://swinburne.blackboard.swinburne.tippy.enterprise?

Computer software

Referencing computer software

Direct quote

Endnote Version 10.0.2 software "is made available under a site licence agreement" (ISI Research, 2006).

Paraphrasing

Endnote is a program, available to students through an institutional agreement with the software provider, that enables researchers to store, manage and present information in citations and reference lists (ISI Research, 2006).

Reference list entry

When the author and the publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

ISI Research. (2006). Endnote (Version 10.0.2) [Computer software]. San Fransisco, CA: Author.

Corporate author

Referencing a statement from a corporate author

Groups that serve as authors (e.g. corporations, associations, government agencies etc.) are usually spelled out each time they appear in-text.

If the group name is generally known by an acronym, then it may be spelled out in full in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter.

Examples

According to the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia (2004) figures for 2004...

This can be seen... (Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia, 2004).

Reference list entry

Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia. (2004). AASB standards for 2005: equivalents to
       IFRSs as at August 2004.
Sydney, Australia: Pearson Education.

Personal communication

Referencing a personal communication

Personal communication can include emails, interviews, informal conversations, telephone calls, letters, and lecture presentations.

Initials are included. Full details of the date (month, day and year) should be provided in the text.

Examples

(S. Hansen, personal communication, July 2, 2011).

S.J. Larmar (personal communication, May 1, 2011) said...

On 20 July 2011, A. Jones confirmed ...

Reference entry list

Personal communications are not included in the reference list.

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